A recombinant herpes virus expressing influenza hemagglutinin confers protection and induces antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

Katherine Kaugars, Joseph Dardick, Anna Paula de Oliveira, Kayla A. Weiss, Regy Lukose, John Kim, Lawrence Leung, Saranathan Rajagopalan, Sydney Wolin, Leor Akabas, David M. Knipe, Goran Bajic, William R. Jacobs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Despite widespread yearly vaccination, influenza leads to significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. To make a more broadly protective influenza vaccine, it may be necessary to elicit antibodies that can activate effector functions in immune cells, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). There is growing evidence supporting the necessity for ADCC in protection against influenza and herpes simplex virus (HSV), among other infectious diseases. An HSV-2 strain lacking the essential glycoprotein D (gD), was used to create ΔgD-2, which is a highly protective vaccine against lethal HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection in mice. It also elicits high levels of IgG2c antibodies that bind FcγRIV, a receptor that activates ADCC. To make an ADCC-eliciting influenza vaccine, we cloned the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from an H1N1 influenza A strain into the ΔgD-2 HSV vector. Vaccination with ΔgD-2::HAPR8 was protective against homologous influenza challenge and elicited an antibody response against HA that inhibits hemagglutination (HAI+), is predominantly IgG2c, strongly activates FcγRIV, and protects against influenza challenge following passive immunization of naïve mice. Prior exposure of mice to HSV-1, HSV-2, or a replication-defective HSV-2 vaccine (dl5-29) does not reduce protection against influenza by ΔgD-2::HAPR8. This vaccine also continues to elicit protection against both HSV-1 and HSV-2, including high levels of IgG2c antibodies against HSV-2. Mice lacking the interferon-α/β receptor and mice lacking the interferon-γ receptor were also protected against influenza challenge by ΔgD-2::HAPR8. Our results suggest that ΔgD-2 can be used as a vaccine vector against other pathogens, while also eliciting protective anti-HSV immunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2110714118
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number34
StatePublished - Aug 24 2021


  • ADCC
  • Herpes simplex virus
  • Influenza vaccine
  • Viral vector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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