A Net Mold-Based Method of Biomaterial-Free Three-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue Creation

Bai Yang, Cecillia Lui, Enoch Yeung, Hiroshi Matsushita, Anjana Jeyaram, Isaree Pitaktong, Takahiro Inoue, Zayneb Mohamed, Chin Siang Ong, Deborah Disilvestre, Steven M. Jay, Leslie Tung, Gordon Tomaselli, Chunye Ma, Narutoshi Hibino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Ischemic cardiomyopathy poses a significant public health burden due to the irreversible loss of functional cardiac tissue. Alternative treatment strategies include creation of three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissues to both replace and augment injured native tissue. In this study, we utilize a net mold-based method to create a biomaterial-free 3D cardiac tissue and compare it to current methods using biomaterials. Cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells were combined using a hanging drop method to create spheroids. For the net mold patch method, spheroids were seeded into a net mold-based system to create biomaterial-free 3D cardiac patches. For the gel patch, spheroids were embedded in a collagen gel. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased alignment, vascularization, collagen I expression, cell viability, and higher density of cells in the net mold patch compared with the gel patch. Furthermore, in vivo testing in a left anterior descending artery ligation rat model found increased ejection fraction and smaller scar area following implantation of the net mold patch. We present a novel and simple reproducible method to create biomaterial-free 3D net mold patches that may potentially improve the treatment of heart failure in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-252
Number of pages10
JournalTissue Engineering - Part C: Methods
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiac tissue engineering
  • hanging drop spheroids
  • heart failure
  • mold-based method

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering


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