A comprehensive guide to antibody and T-cell responses in type 1 diabetes

S. M. Lieberman, T. P. DiLorenzo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

140 Scopus citations


Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets are selectively eliminated. T cells specific for β-cell antigens are the mediators of this precise cellular destruction. However, antibodies to β-cell proteins are also generated and may be used for predicting disease in at-risk populations. Over the past two decades, numerous β-cell proteins and lipids have been implicated as autoantigens in patients or in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a well-studied animal model of T1D. Here, we present a review of these antigens, accompanied by their T-cell epitopes, where known, and a discussion of our current understanding of why particular self-proteins become disease-inciting antigens. Although two dozen β-cell antigens have been identified to date, few of these have been confirmed to be recognized by pathogenic T cells early in the disease process. Further identification and characterization of initiating β-cell antigens targeted by pathogenic T cells should be a priority for future studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-377
Number of pages19
JournalTissue Antigens
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2003


  • Antigens
  • Autoimmunity
  • CD4 T cells
  • CD8 T cells
  • Epitopes
  • NOD mice
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • β cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics


Dive into the research topics of 'A comprehensive guide to antibody and T-cell responses in type 1 diabetes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this